They were opportunistic sample, so are not meant to be fully representative of people in each country. About 59% of respondents associated these drinks with feelings of energy and confidence, and more than 40% associated them with feeling sexy. For instance, spirits are often consumed more quickly and have much higher concentrations of alcohol in them.
Beer is most likely to make you feel relaxed.
"Alcoholic beverages vary in the types of emotions individuals report they elicit, with spirits more frequently eliciting emotional changes of all types". They may also be consumed in different social occasions so people may be drinking them deliberately to feel the drunken effect quickly while other types of drink are more likely to be consumed slowly or with food.
"Such prices can encourage consumption at levels harmful to the health of the drinker and through violence and injuries also represent a risk to the people around them". Men more often associated feelings of aggression with alcohol, according to the survey results. The effects of alcohol such people is reflected in sharply increasing anger, rage, and fear.
For example, almost one-third of hard liquor imbibers said they were more likely to feel aggressive after a shot or two, compared with 2.5 percent of red wine drinkers and just under 7 percent of beer drinkers, the findings showed.
Bellis: There are many factors that may link different drinks to different emotional outcomes.
"Although these are part of the difference in taste between drinks little consideration has been given to what other effects they may have on the drinker".
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Red wine and beer appeared to make drinkers feel most relaxed, with around half of drinkers reporting this emotion, according to the poll of 18 to 34-year-olds who had drunk each of the specified types of alcohol within the past year. For a survey of 29 thousands of young men and women living in 21 countries. The percentages are all low to mid-range, with very similar scores to red wine in terms of confidence (28.27 percent), sexiness (23.73 percent), aggressiveness (2.74 percent), illness (14.50 percent) and restlessness (6.43 percent).
RG: How do you hope your results will be used? . If people are to make informed decisions about their drinking, they need to know the full picture of how alcohol affects moods and emotions.
Marketing plays into this, Professor Bellis said: "There is a lot of content in alcohol promotion to suggest people will get those positive emotional responses they may be seeking". We hope this work will help fill a gap.
"The odds of feeling the majority of positive and negative emotions also remained highest among dependent drinkers, irrespective of setting".
"The history of rum, gin, vodka and other strong drinks practically soaked violence".
And that might be important in how we as a society address problem drinking.
The study is published as the Scottish government announced it will introduce minimum pricing for alcohol on 1 May next year in a bid to combat binge drinking.